The nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, can be damaged in many ways to cause renal insufficiency.

Along with all the other organs that can cause PU/PD (increased urination and drinking known as polyuria/polydipsia), the kidneys themselves are sometimes to blame. While renal disease is complex, it is important to understand some acute and chronic kidney problems that lead to PU/PD.

With acute or chronic insults to the kidneys, the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine is lost; in most cases, the renal tubules that are responsible for drawing water back out of the urine, are damaged. The pet urinates out a higher percentage of water, thus diluting the urine and leading to possible dehydration. The pet drinks more water to counter this loss, and is officially PU/PD. More

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